Waterborne diseases are caused by consuming water that has been contaminated by disease-causing microbes or pathogens. Many waterborne pathogens also make way to the human body through food or beverages, contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person.
According to World Health Organisation, such diseases account for an expected 4.1% of the total Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) global burden of disease and cause around 1.8 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organisation evaluates that 88% of that burden owes to the unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene.
Ahead of World Water Day on 22 March, have a look at 5 common waterborne diseases:
Commonly known as Beaver fever, this disease is caused by a parasite called Giardia Lamblia. Its symptoms include diarrhea, loss of appetite, stomach cramps, vomiting and bloating. It is a communicable disease.
The disease is caused by the amoeba ‘entamoeba histolytica’ and may result in fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. It is a gastrointestinal infection that leads to death of 40,000 to 100,000 people worldwide.
Also known as stomach flu, viral gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, clammy skin, diarrhea, vomiting, fever and headache. The disease is caused by virus which spreads through close contact with infected people or through contaminated water or food.
-Hepatitis Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver most commonly caused by a viral infection. There are five fundamental hepatitis viruses, referred to as A, B, C, D and E. While Hepatitis A, B and E are self-limiting viruses, hepatitis C is the major cause of liver liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Hepatitis D occurs only in the individuals who are infected with HBV.
-Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever or typhoid mostly spreads through unhygienic habits and public sanitation conditions. It is contracted by consumption of contaminated food or water and is characterised by fluctuating high fever, headache, constipation, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal rashes, exhaustion, sleepiness, diarrhea.